HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT : EXPERIENCE FROM CHINA

 Prof. Dr. Hua ZHANG, Tongji University (CN) 

 Prof. Dr. Yuyan HU, Tongji University (CN) 

 Prof. Dr. Wenjie SUN, Southern Methodist University (US)

People's Republic of China (PRC), which represents the world’s most populous and the second largest by land area country, has developed an extremely fast growing economy that is based on industry and manufacturing. This growth is inevitably accompanied by serious environmental issues, which need to be fast and properly managed, no matter how hard or complex this may be.

Especially, as far as hazardous waste management is concerned, much attention has been given and research has been made, providing valuable experience and conclusions. Major and representative examples of hazardous waste management in PRC will be presented during this special workshop, focusing on innovations, special features and developed strategies.

 

IWWG WORKSHOP: WASTE AND ART

 Prof. Dr. Rainer STEGMANN, Hamburg University of Technology (DE)

 Cristina VAN DER WESTHUYZEN, IWWG-SARB (ZA)

The practice of making art from waste and unusual material is widely spread. This is in response to the need for artists, designers and academic institutions to engage with new forms of creativity but also to be part of a move towards waste reduction awareness. Why is this significant to waste experts?

The utilization of waste materials in art does not necessarily result in a substantial increase in recycling or in the reduction of waste but it can change the way in which waste is perceived. Bringing waste back to people in an attractive form can challenge the thinking of the waste experts and awaken an interest in those unaware of waste management problems.

 

HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL AND IN HAZARDOUS WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AND HANDLING

 Prof. Dr. Giuseppe BONIFAZI, Sapienza University of Rome (IT)

 Prof. Dr. Silvia SERRANTI, Sapienza University of Rome (IT)

Chemical Imaging is an emerging, and dramatically growing, technology based on the utilization on integrated hardware and software (HW&SW) architecture embedding conventional imaging and spectroscopy to attain both spatial and spectral information from “a scene”. Chemical Imaging is widely used as a powerful analytical tool for fast, reliable, robust, non-destructive and low cost analysis.

Workshop lectures will introduce and critically analyze the basics of this technique, the advantages, the main sample analysis methods and the accessories used to obtain representative spectra of analytical samples. A discussion of simple methods for evaluating devices and configurations performance will also be offered.

The attendees will learn to implement fast, reliable and low-cost strategies for: i) quality control of waste materials and/or products that must comply with specific chemical, physical and biological constraints, ii) performance evaluation of strategies related to processing chains and/or real-time tuning of operative variables and iii) classification actions addressed to recognize and separate different materials/products. Case studies, related to recent advances in the application of HSI to hazardous wastes and addressed to specific goals as contaminants detection, constituent analysis and quality evaluation are described, according to authors’ originally developed application. New ideas and concepts will be also presented a shared with the attendees specifically focusing on practical utilization and implementation both in terms of “hand handled” devices and/or in an “on-line” or “in-line” detection/control perspective.

 

INNOVATIVE RECOVERY STRATEGIES OF CRITICAL METALS FROM WASTE OF ELECTRIC AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT (WEEE)

 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Kerstin KUCHTA, Hamburg University of Technology (DE)

Critical Metals (e.g. rare earth metals (REM), precious metals, tantalum, lithium, etc.) are essential and important for the production of electrical and electronic equipment. An increasing demand for green and information technology products could lead to a scarcity of these resources in future and a dependency on a very few supply countries. Currently the extraction of Critical Metals (CM) from ores is energy intensive and involves environmental risks due to the toxic chemicals involved. An alternative source for CM is Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). However, the currently applied recycling processes of this complex waste stream WEEE do not focus on the recovery of CM. Moreover, inadequate recycling approaches in developing countries are causing severe sanitary and environmental damages.

Therefore, it is essential to develop effective and ecologically sound systems, including concerted collection, pre-treatment and refining processes for an utmost efficient recovery. Due to these manifold challenges the recovery of CM from WEEE cannot be solved on a national level. Hence, experts from all process phases have to create an interdisciplinary, transnational alliance in the pan-European context.

The session has the objective to discuss best options in order to support the supply of European industries while reducing environmental hazards on global scale.

 

VALORIZATION OF RED MUD FOR ADVANCED WASTEWATER TREATMENT

 Prof. Dr. Dionissios MANTZAVINOS,   University of Patras (GR)

 Prof. Dr. George N. ANGELOPOULOS, University of Patras (GR)

Based on the principle that the natural resources of our planet are limited, it is imperative to (i) transform wastes and by-products into new, high-added value products and energy and (ii) consider them as national/European resources.

In this perspective, this special session will address strategic research and policies in biomass, industrial, agro-industrial and municipal solid wastes and by-products valorization to produce new materials with high-added value, gaseous and liquid biofuels, electricity, liquid and solid fertilizers, as well as the sustainable management of resources.

The session will also address the concept of INVALOR (Institute of Waste Valorization and Sustainable Management of Resources), a distributed research infrastructure supporting research and development in waste valorization and sustainable management of natural resources.

 

LEACHING ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK, DATA MANAGEMENT AND MODELLING

 Dr. Hans van der SLOOT, HansvanderSlootConsultancy (NL)

 Prof. Dr. David KOSSON, Vanderbilt University, Nashville (US)

 Susan THORNELOE, US EPA (US)

Leaching of substances from materials is one of the main mechanisms by which contaminants pose a threat to health and the environment, as most substances need to pass through a liquid phase before leading to an impact. Many leaching tests are available, but recently, a comprehensive set of tools has been defined that cover virtually all aspects needed to define a source term for release of substances from a material – being soil, sludge, compost, sediment, various types of municipal, industrial and hazardous waste, mining waste, preserved wood, treated waste, stabilised waste or a construction material – for assessment of treatment, disposal or use in construction or agricultural applications.

Workshop lectures will introduce leaching assessment using these more robust leaching tests than commonly applied in characterizing secondary materials and wastes in a tiered approach.  The objective is to balance effort needed and information gained to evaluate environmental safety with respect to risks to human health and the environment.

The attendees will learn to evaluate and manage test data using LeachXS-Orchestra for making assessments of potential environmental impact in hazardous waste classification, treatment options for disposal and beneficial use. The geochemical speciation of waste materials will be addressed to obtain insight in release controlling mineral phases, sorption reactions or incorporation into solid solutions under the relevant conditions of the considered scenario.

Specific aspects to be covered are:

  • Fundamentals of LEAF, leaching tests and comparison of different leaching tests;  
  • Comparison of laboratory, lysimeter and field data; 
  • Scenario-based leaching assessment for decision making;  
  • Geochemical speciation partitioning and transport modelling for leaching source terms;  
  • Statistical data evaluation and quality control options;  
  • Status in the US, EU and other countries; and, 
  • LeachXS as a toolset for data management, reporting, geochemical speciation modeling and scenaro-based simulations.  
 

CONTROLLING MERCURY IN THE WASTE STREAM

 Dr. Timothy John McDONNEL, Centre for Waste Management, University of Central Lancashire (UK)

 Dr. Karl WILLIAMS, Centre for Waste Management, University of Central Lancashire (UK)

Currently, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has coordinated with most world governments to ratify the removal and safe storage of ALL forms of anthropogenic mercury. As a consequence of both EU Energy policy and exemptions within the RoHS Directive small amounts of mercury have been extensively distributed across EU member states.

This is in the form of low energy lighting such as compact fluorescent bulbs. Fluorescent lighting is part of the WEEE waste stream and is classified as a hazardous. This waste stream requires selective collection and treatment for mercury removal during the recycling process. The collection and recovery of mercury within member states for businesses is through country specific compliance schemes. Non-business lighting is through designated collection facilities mostly located within waste recycling centres accessible to the public. In order to facilitate lamp waste treatment, maximize the recovery rates and improve working environment, an automated, sealed sorting unit is introduced. This is the concept of the EU supported ILLUMINATE project. This is developing automated systems that are able to effectively sort bulbs into different classes and remove foreign objects, thus is adding the separation of the hazardous mercury waste stream.

During this workshop the following areas will be discussed:

  • Mercury emission hot-spots and threats to human and environmental well-being;  
  • Legislation and policy related to mercury;  
  • Best practice in recycling lighting products containing mercury;  
  • New technologies in the separation of mercury containing products in the lighting sector;  
  • Recovery of resource materials from gas discharge lightings;  
  • Building awareness and education for the correct disposal of mercury containing products; and, 

These topics will be explored through interactive group activities. This workshop is aimed primarily at the following: authorised approved treatment facilities, environmental health officers, compliance schemes, waste collection logistics and municipality recycling officers.

 

PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SITES MANAGEMENT: SUCCESSFUL STORIES AND STRATEGIES

 Prof. Dr. Evangelos GIDARAKOS, Technical University of Crete (GR)

 Dr. Maria AIVALIOTI, Technical University of Crete (GR)

Petroleum components probably represent the most common and widely spread contaminants around the world. The great variability of their properties, behavior and impacts on the environment and human health has led to intensive research on their management and especially the management of petroleum contaminated sites. Several methods and technologies have been developed for the characterization, remediation and monitoring of petroleum contaminated soils and waters. However, their adoption and efficiency is highly site dependent.

Therefore, attention should be given to the special conditions of each case study, before trying to develop generally recommended strategies for petroleum contaminated fields’ management. This workshop aims at presenting and analyzing successful stories of petroleum contaminated sites management, in an effort to draw valuable conclusions as far as the development of productive strategies is concerned.